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Enough is enough: How men can join the fight against GBV

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South African women have been tirelessly rallying for an end to gender-based violence. Now it’s time for men to take a stand, find out why gender-based violence is so prevalent in SA and learn what they can do to really make a difference. Read on to join the fight…

Gender-based violence (GBV) and femicide are a widespread problem in South Africa, with stats published in the Crimes Against Women in South Africa report showing that femicide in South Africa is 5 times higher than the global average.

According to SaferSpaces, between 25% and 40% of South African women have experienced sexual or physical intimate partner violence, while just under 50% have experienced emotional or economic abuse by their partners in their lifetime.

Why do men need to join the fight?

‘We want to stop gender-based violence before it happens, and that requires tackling toxic masculinity and notions of patriarchy,’ said Bafana Khumalo, co-founder of Sonke Gender Justice, in an interview with the Daily Maverick.

Men play a key role in ending GBV, as they have influence over male social norms within their circles.

To make a real change, they need to speak to their friends, sons, fathers and brothers to help them unlearn the social norms that drive GBV.

Why is GBV so entrenched in South African communities?

‘There is a desperate absence of positive male figures in South African communities, and boys as young as 10 years old are recruited by gangs, perpetuating the cycle of violence,’ says Corna Olivier, a registered psychological counsellor. She adds that there is an overwhelming focus on intervention programmes for women and girls, but virtually none for males.

Some reasons why the cycle of GBV continues in SA include:

  • A widespread belief among South African men that they are entitled to women and are more powerful than women
  • Men associating masculinity with controlling women
  • Violence against women being considered acceptable in some settings and cultures in South Africa, making it difficult for GBV to be addressed effectively
  • Gender stereotypes, including linking masculinity with ‘macho’ and violent behaviour and femininity with victimhood and submission
  • Being exposed to violence at home during childhood, experiencing abuse or witnessing violence for long periods

What can men do to make a difference?

‘Women are the collateral damage in the battle raging within our boys and men. Anger is a secondary emotion, aggression the expression thereof. The primary emotion is fear. Men need to help men heal,’ says Corna. Men can do the following to help end the cycle:

  • Be a dependable role model. The best way to teach is by example. Take responsibility at home, in your workplace and in your social circles, and be a role model for other males, showing them that men need to treat women respectfully and as equals. Raise your male children to treat women with respect, dignity and kindness, and openly discuss the issue of consent – ‘no’ means ‘no’.
  • Speak up and take action. Help your colleagues, friends and family members to unlearn the attitude that ‘boys will be boys’. Calling out other men on unacceptable behaviour, such as catcalling, harassment and inappropriate comments, is an important step. Report them for any GBV-related acts and support women when they ask for help.
  • Take responsibility for your mental health. If you suspect you are struggling with a mental health condition such as depression, anger or difficulty exercising self-control, see a mental health expert or ask your doctor to refer you to one.

For more insight into gender-based violence, read this helpful article:

For confidential assistance, contact Life EHS; SMS your name to 31581 and the Care Centre will call you back.

The information is shared on condition that readers will make their own determination, including seeking advice from a professional. E&OE.

References:


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Dealing with bipolar mood disorder

Bursts of energy and goal-driven activity with very little need for sleep sounds like a recipe for go-getter success. But when it’s accompanied by inflated self-esteem and irrational decisions and, after a few weeks, a mood swing to the other end of the spectrum, it’s time to get help.

‘These extremes of a manic or hypomanic high followed by a depressive low represent the two poles of bipolar mood disorder, formerly called manic depression,’ says Dr Theshenthree Govender, a specialist psychiatrist based at Life Entabeni Hospital and Life St Joseph’s in Durban. It is a mental illness, not a character flaw, she emphasises. ‘The brain is an organ and, like any other organ in the body, it can malfunction.’

Who gets bipolar mood disorder?

Bipolar mood disorder can affect anyone, inhibiting their ability to function. In particular, for those with a genetic predisposition, psychological and environmental stressors – even something positive such as the birth of a child – could precipitate the onset of symptoms. Although it can’t be cured, the disorder can be managed.

There are 3 types of the disorder

The type of disorder depends on the symptoms.

  1. Bipolar I: manic highs and depressive lows. From being euphoric, feeling invincible and energetic, a patient sinks into despair, feeling useless and unable to manage life. The manic phase can lead to psychosis.
  2. Bipolar II: hypomania, and usually more depressive episodes. Hypomania is more subtle than mania and doesn’t lead to psychosis.
  3. Cyclothymia: hypomanic and depressive cycles occur over a two-year period, but the symptoms are not full-blown.

A clinical diagnosis is made by a psychiatrist, based on symptoms, history and genetic predisposition. Dr Govender says it’s essential to rule out that symptoms are caused by a medical condition such as a brain tumour or stroke, medication prescribed for other illnesses or drug abuse.

Dr Rani Samuel, a clinical psychologist who consults at Life St Joseph’s, says when the symptoms are tracked back, it’s usually clear that there’s been ‘a persistent emotional unravelling’ for at least a few weeks. ‘Anyone can have mild mood fluctuations, but in bipolar disorder the mood changes are quite marked,’ she says.

How is bipolar disorder treated?

The type of bipolar disorder and the phase a patient is in dictate the appropriate treatment. ‘If a patient is in a manic episode, there’s a risk of suicide, so we need to stabilise them. If they’re psychotic, sedation might be necessary,’ says Dr Govender.

If a patient is in a depressive phase, a picture of behaviour over time is key because if depression is diagnosed and antidepressants are prescribed, these could precipitate a manic episode.

Long term, a mood stabiliser is the mainstay for managing and controlling the disorder. ‘The medications are optimised according to clinical response, so monitoring, patient compliance and follow-up are essential,’ says Dr Govender. ‘If a patient defaults on prescribed medication and relapses, they are more likely to have an extended episode with increasing episode frequency that becomes progressively destructive,’ she adds. Dr Samuel says that alongside medication, psychotherapy for bipolar mood disorder is fundamental to managing the condition.

Nurse Grace Maleka, Clinic Manager at Life Carstenview, advises that family members of those affected seek out help too. ‘It helps everyone understand and cope with the illness, and the family learns how they can best support their loved one,’ she says.

What is electroconvulsive therapy?

While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is controversial due to perceptions based on the old-fashioned technique, it is now safe, effective and done in a theatre with an anaesthetist, says Dr Govender. Small electrical currents are passed through the brain, triggering a brief seizure, which changes the brain chemistry and controls symptoms. A possible side effect is short-term memory loss.

ECT may be used for patients who can’t take medication (such as pregnant women), if the standard treatment isn’t working, or if a patient is manic and highly suicidal or severely depressed and catatonic, says Dr Govender.

WORDS BY GILLIAN WARREN-BROWN

The information is shared on condition that readers will make their own determination, including seeking advice from a healthcare professional. E&OE.

References:

  • Adapted from Life Healthcare magazine (2018). Taking charge of bipolar disorder by Warren-Brown, G. p.24. Adapted with permission.

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